Steel and titanium are the first materials that spring to mind when designers need strong, durable materials for their ideas. These metals are available in a variety of alloys, which are base metals impregnated with additional metallic elements to generate a total larger than its parts. There are dozens of titanium alloys and hundreds of more steel alloys, so deciding where to start when evaluating these two metals may be difficult. This article may assist designers in determining which material is best for their project by examining the physical, mechanical, and operating qualities of steel and titanium. Each metal will be briefly discussed, followed by a comparison of their differences to indicate when one should be specified over the other.
The main distinction between these two materials is that titanium is a metal, while stainless steel is a metal alloy. Continue reading to get a greater grasp of the ramifications of this distinction, as well as a clearer image of the other distinctions between titanium and stainless steel.
Basics of Titanium and Steel:-
Titanium is a metallic element with a silver-to-grey tint. It has a high strength-to-weight ratio, resulting in a very powerful material. Titanium is also very resistant to corrosion and has a high heat transfer effectiveness. As a consequence, it is particularly desired for usage in some sectors, such as buildings, where temperature fluctuations and weather conditions might have a negative impact on structural parts.
Titanium is exceptionally robust due to its great mechanical resistance. Its low density makes it lightweight, which adds to its appeal in some sectors. It has a broad range of corrosion resistance, making it very resistant to corrosion caused by a wide range of alkalis, acids, industrial chemicals, and natural waterways.
Stainless steel is alloy steel, which implies that it is steel that has been mixed with one or more components to modify its properties. Alloying is the process of combining more than one metal. In the case of stainless steel, it is often produced with ten to thirty percent chromium and seventy percent iron to provide corrosion resistance as well as the capacity to withstand temperature variations.
Other elements are generally brought into play to improve the steel’s resistance to corrosion or oxidation. In certain circumstances, a specific element is introduced to promote a distinct feature in a specific variety of stainless steel. Although not usually present in alloy steel, one or more of the following elements may be present: titanium, copper, aluminum, sulfur, nickel, selenium, niobium, nitrogen, phosphorus, or molybdenum. Alloying elements are the particular metals that have been added to steel to generate stainless steel.
Steel vs. Titanium Comparison
Choosing one of these metals over the other is determined by the application. This section will examine various mechanical qualities shared by steel and titanium in order to demonstrate where each metal should be specified. It is important to note that the figures in the table for both steel and titanium are from generic tables since the properties of each metal vary greatly depending on alloy type, heat treatment procedure, and composition.
|Density||7.8-8 g/cm3||0.282-0.289 lb/in3||4.51 g/cm3||0.163lb/ in3|
|Modulus of Elasticity||200 GPa||29000 ksi||116 GPa||16800 ksi|
|Tensile Yield strength||350 MPa*||50800 psi*||140 MPa*||20300 psi*|
|Elongation at Break||15%*||54%|
The first noticeable difference between titanium and steel is their densities; as previously stated, titanium is roughly half as dense as steel, rendering it much lighter. This lends titanium to applications that need the strength of steel in a lighter packaging, such as airplane components and other weight-dependent applications. Steel’s density may be advantageous in some applications, such as a car chassis, although weight reduction is generally a problem.
The modulus of elasticity, often known as Young’s modulus, is an indicator of a material’s elasticity. It defines how easily a material may be bent or warped without plastic deformation and is frequently a strong indicator of a material’s overall elastic response. Titanium has a low elastic modulus, implying that it bends and deforms quickly. This is one of the reasons titanium is difficult to manufacture because it clogs mills and tends to revert to its original form. Steel, on the other hand, has a far greater elastic modulus, allowing it to be easily welded and employed in applications such as knife blades since it will shatter rather than bend under pressure.
When the tensile yield strengths of titanium and steel are compared, an intriguing phenomenon emerges: steel is generally stronger than titanium. This contradicts the widely held belief that titanium is stronger than most other metals and demonstrates the superiority of steel over titanium. While titanium’s strength is only on par with steel’s, it does it at half the weight, making it one of the strongest metals per unit mass. Steel, on the other hand, is the go-to material when it comes to overall strength since some of its alloys outperform all other metals in terms of yield strengths. Steel is the best choice for designers who are just concerned with strength, whereas titanium is the best choice for designers who are concerned with strength per unit mass.
In a tensile test, elongation at break is the percentage of a test specimen’s original length divided by its length just before fracturing, multiplied by 100. A considerable elongation at break indicates that the material “stretches” more before fracturing; in other words, it is more prone to greater ductile behavior before fracture. Titanium is one such substance, stretching over half its length before shattering. Another reason titanium is hard to fabricate is that it pulls and deforms rather than chipping off. Steel is available in a variety of alloys, although it usually has a low elongation at break, making it harder and more prone to brittle fracture under stress.
Hardness is a comparable measure that represents the sensitivity of a material to scratching, etching, denting or deformation along its surface. It is measured using indenter machines, which come in a variety of shapes and sizes depending on the material. The Brinell hardness test is often required for high-strength metals, and that is what is presented in Table 1. Steel’s Brinell hardness varies widely depending on heat treatment and alloy composition, though it is almost always harder than titanium. This is not to mean that when scratched or indented, titanium deforms readily; on the contrary, the titanium dioxide layer that develops on the surface is very robust and resists most penetrating forces. They are both tough materials that perform well in harsh settings, barring any added chemical impacts.
Other comparable factors are:-
Titanium is highly biocompatible, which means it is harmless to the human body. As a result, it is often employed in the medical sector as a reliable source for replacement components such as hip implants, knee replacements, pacemaker casings, and craniofacial plates for the human body. It is also used in the dental sector for dental implants, which is a rising area of dentistry. Titanium is often used to produce jewelry due to its biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and lightweight nature in comparison to stainless steel.
Titanium, on the other hand, is more costly than stainless steel, making it prohibitively expensive for certain sectors, such as construction, which needs vast amounts. As a result, when the cost is a consideration, stainless steel is occasionally preferred over titanium if both materials are regarded as appropriate.
Stainless steel is weldable and formable, enabling it to be readily formed, which contributes to its appeal in a variety of sectors. Because of its gleaming look, stainless steel is often used in the production of home goods like cooking pots and pans, as well as healthcare equipment such as sinks, worktops, portable carts, storage, and tables.
Stainless steel is prone to fatigue and fracturing, but titanium is very resistant to fatigue induced by temperature fluctuations. As a result, titanium is a preferable option when temperature changes cause severe highs or lows.
The purpose of this article was to provide a quick comparison of the qualities, strength, and uses of steel and titanium. For more information on other items, examine our further guides or go to Kalpataru Piping Systems to see product specifics.